A guide: What are the raw materials that make solar panels?

Solar panel raw materials site

In recent years, the sustainability of solar panels has gained increasing attention. With growing concern for environmental issues, solar panels have been recognized globally as a clean and renewable energy source, receiving widespread support and encouragement. Governments have implemented various policies and incentives to promote the adoption and application of solar panels, driving the development of sustainable energy.

Solar panels (also known as PV(photovoltaic) panels ) are devices capable of converting solar energy into electricity. They serve as the core components of solar power systems, capturing sunlight and converting it into direct current (DC) electricity for residential, industrial, commercial, and other applications.

This article will explain the main materials used in manufacturing solar panels and provide information about companies producing these materials in the market. When purchasing panels, you can request the panel manufacturer to use specific materials as per your requirements.

1 Main raw materials for solar panels:

  1. Cells
  2. Glass
  3. Aluminum frame
  4. EVA
  5. Back Sheet
  6. Ribbon
  7. High temperature adhesive tape
  8. Sealant
  9. Potting Compound
  10. Junction Box and Connecting Wire
  11. Flux and Solder Wires

1.1 Cells

1.1.1 What is this?

The form factor and material of solar cells may vary by manufacturer and model, and are usually square or rectangular in shape. Common cell materials are silicon (polycrystalline or monocrystalline).Common sizes on the market:156.75mm、158.75mm、166mm、182mm、210mm.And Among them, 156.75mm, 166mm and 182mm have chamfered corners; 158.75mm and 210mm are right angles.

Cell Slicing

1.1.2 Famous Manufacturers


Strengths: LONGi is one of the world’s largest monocrystalline silicon solar cell wafer manufacturers. They specialize in the R&D and production of monocrystalline silicon technology to provide high-efficiency, high-quality monocrystalline silicon wafers. Long-term R&D investment and large-scale production enable them to provide competitive and high-efficiency products.

JinkoSolar (China)

Strengths: JinkoSolar is one of the world’s largest solar cell wafer manufacturers and a leader in polycrystalline silicon wafers. Their products are known for their high conversion efficiency and outstanding reliability.JinkoSolar focuses on technological innovation and product development, and offers a wide range of different types and sizes of solar cells to meet different market needs.

Canadian Solar(China)

Strengths: Canadian Solar is a globally recognized solar solution provider and one of the leading manufacturers of solar cells. Their products are of good quality, offering high efficiency polycrystalline and monocrystalline silicon wafers, as well as products with PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell) technology, which improves the performance of the wafers.

JA Solar(China)
Strengths: JA Solar is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of solar cell wafers, offering high-efficiency polysilicon and PERC wafers. Their products excel in energy conversion efficiency and reliability.

First Solar (USA)

Strengths: First Solar is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of thin film solar cells. They specialize in Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin-film technology, which excels in high-temperature environments and has high efficiency in low-light conditions. Their thin-film cells are suitable for large-scale PV power plant projects.

SunPower (USA)

Strengths: SunPower is an American solar technology company that offers high efficiency monocrystalline silicon solar cells.SunPower’s Maxeon solar cells utilize back-contact technology for high efficiency, high reliability, and guaranteed long-term performance.

LG Solar (Korea)

Strengths: LG Solar, a subsidiary of the LG Group in South Korea, produces high-efficiency, high-quality monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Their cells are designed with multi-line grid which helps in increasing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

These companies have an excellent reputation in the solar industry and have strengths in a variety of technology areas.


1.2 Glass

1.2.1 What is this?

Solar panels typically use clear glass to protect the cells. The glass size corresponds to the cell size.Common Solar Panel Styles Single Sided and Double Sided.

1.2.2 Famous Manufacturers

Sinoma (China)
Strengths: As one of the largest architectural glass manufacturers in China, Sinoma International also has strength in solar panel glass. Their glass products are of stable quality and are widely used as covering glass for solar panels.


Strengths:FGG may be famous for producing high quality photovoltaic glass. The high quality glass helps to improve the performance and longevity of solar panels. May offer a diverse range of photovoltaic glass products to meet the needs of a variety of customers, including glass of different sizes, shapes and special features.

First Solar Glass (USA)

Strengths: First Solar is the world’s leading manufacturer of thin-film solar cells, and they produce their own specialized glass for thin-film solar panels. Their glass products have good light transmission and weather resistance and perform well in high temperature environments.

NSG Group(Japan)

Strengths: NSG Group is one of the largest glass manufacturers in Japan, offering a wide range of glass products, including specialty glass for the solar industry, such as glass backsheets for photovoltaic cell modules.

These glass manufacturers have strength and experience in the photovoltaic field, providing high quality glass products to fulfill the needs of solar panel manufacturing and assembly. Their glass products offer advantages in terms of light transparency, weather resistance, and anti-reflection, which help improve the efficiency and reliability of solar panels.


1.3 Aluminum frame

1.3.1 What is this?

Aluminum frame supports and protects the solar panels from external environmental stress and wind.

aluminum frame supports and protects the solar panels from external environmental stress and wind



1.4 EVA

1.4.1 What is this?

EVA is the adhesive in solar panels that holds the cell and glass in place and prevents dust and moisture from entering.


1.4.2 Famous Manufacturers

First Solar(USA)

First Solar is a leading American solar energy company and one of the world’s largest manufacturers of thin film solar cells. In addition to producing solar cell wafers, they also manufacture components such as EVA and backsheets.First Solar has developed a special EVA encapsulant called “Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) EVA Encapsulant”, which is uniquely formulated to address the encapsulation needs of thin-film solar cells, helping to improve the performance and durability of the cell modules. durability.


3M is an American multinational company and one of the key suppliers of solar EVA. Their EVA encapsulants are widely used in various types of solar panels. 3M’s EVA products are typically characterized by high viscosity, high transparency, and good weathering resistance, which help to improve the light absorption efficiency of the cell and the quality of the encapsulation.

Sveck (China)

Sveck is a solar EVA supplier in China and one of the leading EVA manufacturers in the world. They offer different types and sizes of EVA encapsulation materials to meet the needs of a variety of solar panel manufacturers.Sveck’s EVA products typically have good adhesion and weathering resistance to ensure reliable cell encapsulation.


1.5 Back Sheet

1.5.1 What is this?

Back sheet is usually made of plastic or metal and is used to protect the back side of the battery cell from dust, moisture, and other effects on the cell.

1.5.2 Famous Manufacturers

Jolywood (China)

Jolywood is a leading solar back sheet manufacturer in China and its products are widely used in solar panel manufacturing worldwide.


Coveme is a professional solar back sheet manufacturer in Italy, providing high quality backsheet products and solutions.

Krempel Group(German)

Krempel is one of the German solar back sheet manufacturers, whose products have a certain share in the global PV market.

There are many other excellent solar backsheet manufacturers in the market. When selecting a backsheet supplier, it is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation be made based on a number of aspects, including product quality, performance, reliability, and customer feedback, in order to meet the specific needs and criteria of the project.


1.6 Ribbon

1.6.1 What is this?

Ribbon are used to connect cells to form series or parallel battery circuits.

PV Ribbon

1.6.2 Famous Manufacturers

Ulbrich (USA)

Strengths: Ulbrich Solar Technologies is one of the leading suppliers of solar cell soldering tape in the United States. The company produces high-quality welding tapes with excellent conductivity and reliability.

Toyo Aluminium K.K. (Japan)

Strengths: Toyo Aluminium is a well-known manufacturer of solar cell welding tapes in Japan.

CECC Optoelectronics Technology (China)

Advantage: CECC Optoelectronics Technology is one of the professional solar cell soldering tape manufacturers in China, with stable product quality for all kinds of solar cell wafers.

Jingke Electronic Materials (Shanghai) Co., Ltd (China)

Advantage: Jingke Electronic Materials is a leading company in the field of soldering tapes in China, providing high quality soldering tape products and excellent service.


1.7 High temperature adhesive tape

1.7.1 What is this?

High-temperature adhesive tapes are used to secure and protect components during the assembly of solar panels.

1.7.2 Famous Manufacturers

3M (USA)

Strengths: 3M is a globally recognized, diversified technology company whose high-temperature adhesive tape products offer excellent high-temperature resistance and adhesion.3M’s high-temperature adhesive tapes are widely used in industrial, aerospace and other fields to meet the demands of harsh high-temperature environments.

Saint-Gobain (France)

Strengths: Saint-Gobain is a multinational manufacturing company whose high-temperature adhesive tapes are known for their high quality and reliability. These adhesive tapes are widely used in high-temperature sealing, insulation and insulating applications to meet the needs of the industrial and technological sectors.

Nitto Denko (Japan)

Strengths: Nitto Denko is a Japanese chemical company whose high-temperature adhesive tape products offer excellent heat resistance and chemical stability. These adhesive tapes are widely used in the electronics, aerospace and automotive industries.

Fuji Tape (China)

Strengths: Fuji Tape is a professional tape manufacturer in China, and its high-temperature adhesive tapes have a certain share in the domestic market. These adhesive tapes are commonly used in high temperature heat treatment, aerospace and other applications.


1.8 Sealant

1.8.1 What is this?

Sealants are mainly used to seal the edges and interfaces of solar modules to prevent moisture, dust and other contaminants from entering the interior of the module and to protect the battery chips from the external environment.

1.8.2 Famous Manufacturers

Bayer AG(German)

Strengths: Bayer is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company whose photovoltaic silicone products offer excellent weathering and UV resistance. Bayer’s silicone is widely used in the encapsulation of solar panels to protect the battery chips and extend their service life.

Dow  (USA)

Strengths: Trane is an American silicone manufacturer whose photovoltaic silicone products are widely used in the solar industry. Trane’s silicone has excellent adhesion and temperature resistance, and is suitable for different encapsulation processes and environmental conditions.

Wanhua (China)

Strengths: Wanhua Chemical is a Chinese chemical company whose PV silicone products are influential in the domestic market. The company provides silicone for solar panels of different sizes and shapes.

TONSAN (China)

Advantage: TONSAN is a famous manufacturer of silicone (adhesive frame glue) in solar cell module manufacturing. They have extensive technical experience and high quality silicone products, which are widely used in the encapsulation of solar panels to ensure reliability and long life.


1.9 Potting Compound

1.9.1 What is this?

It is mainly used to encapsulate the whole solar cell module, fix the battery chip and other components together, and potting inside the module to protect the battery chip from the external environment and improve the structural strength and durability of the module. It also has excellent weather resistance, chemical resistance and high temperature resistance to protect the battery chip from moisture, pollution and temperature changes.


1.10 Junction Box and Connecting Wire

1.10.1 What is this?

solar module junction box is very important in the composition of the solar module, the main role is to connect the power generated by the solar cell with the external lines. The junction box is glued together with the back panel of the module through silicone, the lead wires in the module are connected together through the internal lines in the junction box, and the internal lines are connected together with the external cables, so that the module is connected to the external cables. There are diodes inside the junction box to ensure that the module can work properly when the light is blocked.

solar module junction box is very important in the composition of the solar module

1.11 Flux and Solder Wires

1.11.1 What is this?

For soldering work during assembly


2 Conclude

These raw materials are precisely assembled during the manufacturing process to form solar panels that convert solar energy into electricity. Different models of solar panels may vary in components and sizes to meet different application needs and performance requirements.