On-grid, off-grid and hybrid solar systems,do you really know it?

solar photovoltaic system

When it comes to solar systems, three primary types are often discussed: on-grid, off-grid, and hybrid systems. These systems differ in functionality, operation, and their connection to the electrical grid, and understanding their differences is crucial for making informed decisions about solar energy solutions.

On-grid Systems

What is an on-grid system?

An on-grid system refers to a solar power system that is connected to the public electricity grid. It allows the generated solar electricity to be supplied to the building or premises while any excess power is fed back into the grid.

How do on-grid systems work?

On-grid systems utilize solar photovoltaic (PV) solar panels to convert sunlight into DC electricity, which is then converted into AC electricity through inverters for consumption. These systems are designed to be connected to the existing electrical grid, allowing for the seamless exchange of electricity between the solar system and the grid.

Advantages of on-grid systems

  • Financial benefits: On-grid systems offer the potential for significant cost savings by harnessing solar power and reducing reliance on the public grid. By generating their own electricity, users can offset a portion or even the entirety of their energy consumption from the grid, resulting in reduced electricity bills. This can lead to long-term financial savings, especially as electricity costs continue to rise.
  • Income generation: On-grid systems also provide an opportunity for income generation through the sale of excess electricity. When the solar system generates more electricity than is needed, it can be fed back into the grid. In many countries, utility companies offer feed-in tariffs or other incentive programs that allow users to sell the surplus electricity to the grid at a predetermined rate. This additional income stream can help offset the initial investment in the solar system and contribute to overall cost savings.
  • No space issues: you can feed excess power into the utility grid instead of using battery storage, which would require you to have a large block of space to store batteries.

Disadvantages of on-grid systems

  • Dependence on the grid: Grid-tied systems rely on the availability and reliability of the electrical grid. If there is a power outage or grid failure, the system will automatically shut down for safety reasons. This means that during such events, even if you have a solar system, you won’t have access to electricity unless you have backup power options like batteries or a generator.
  • Grid connection costs: Connecting an on-grid system to the electrical grid may involve additional costs, such as permits, interconnection fees, and system upgrades to meet grid standards and regulations. These costs can vary depending on the location and specific requirements of the grid provider, potentially affecting the overall return on investment.
  • No control over electricity prices: While on-grid systems can help reduce electricity bills, they do not shield you from fluctuations in electricity prices. You will still be subject to changes in utility rates, which can impact the overall savings you can achieve. Additionally, feed-in tariff rates can also change over time, affecting the income generated from selling excess electricity.

On-grid solar system equipment

Only explain the equipment specific to on-grid solar systems:

Safety switches and protective equipment: To ensure the safe operation of grid-connected solar systems, equipment such as safety switches, overload protectors and ground protection devices are often included. These devices prevent overcurrents, voltage anomalies and other potentially dangerous situations from causing damage to the system and to personnel.

Inverter: Inverter is one of the key devices in the on-grid solar systems.Phase and frequency of on-grid inverter synchronization currents to suit the utility grid.Some homeowners prefer micro inverters, which are much smaller in size and can be installed on the back of each solar panel. While microinverters are more expensive than string inverters, they have proven to generate higher efficiency. Those who have concerns about shading issues should definitely consider choosing microinverters. This way, even if one solar panel is affected by shading, the rest of the panels can continue operating normally, maximizing the overall system’s power generation efficiency.


Off-grid Systems

What is an off-grid system?

An off-grid system, also referred to as a stand-alone solar system, is a self-sufficient solar energy setup that operates autonomously without being connected to the electrical grid. Unlike on-grid systems, which rely on the utility grid for electricity exchange, off-grid systems are specifically designed to cater to remote or inaccessible areas where grid connectivity is not viable or cost-effective.

How do off-grid systems work?

Off-grid systems utilize solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic process. This generated electricity is then stored in solar batteries to be used later when there is little or no sunlight available. These solar batteries play a crucial role in enabling the storage of excess electricity, ensuring a continuous power supply during nighttime or periods of low solar irradiation. By harnessing and storing solar energy, off-grid systems provide a reliable and sustainable power solution for locations without access to the electrical grid.

Advantages of off-grid systems

  • Great for remote locations:Off-grid systems are ideal for remote or isolated locations where grid connectivity is not feasible or cost-effective. They offer a practical solution for providing electricity to areas far from utility infrastructure, such as rural communities, cabins, farms, or remote research stations.
  • Full self-sufficiency:One of the most significant advantages of off-grid systems is their ability to provide complete energy independence. They operate autonomously without relying on the electrical grid, allowing users to generate and use their electricity entirely from renewable sources like solar power.

Disadvantages of off-grid systems

  • Higher Initial Investment: Off-grid systems typically demand a larger upfront investment compared to on-grid systems. The costs of solar panels, batteries, and other equipment can be substantial, making the initial setup more expensive.

  • Limited Energy Storage: The capacity of batteries used in off-grid systems is constrained. Consequently, users must carefully manage their energy consumption to align with the available stored power. During periods of low solar generation, the risk of running out of electricity exists.

  • Maintenance and Replacement Costs: Off-grid systems necessitate regular maintenance and periodic battery replacements, which can add to the overall operational expenses over time. Battery lifespans vary (around 5 to 15 years) depending on the type and quality of batteries used, requiring budgeting for replacements.

Off-grid solar system equipment

Since an off-grid system is not connected to the electricity grid, it must be designed appropriately to generate enough power throughout the year.Extra components:

Battery Bank:Battery packs play a key role in off-grid solar systems, and they are an important part of ensuring sustainable system operation. Off-grid solar systems convert sunlight into electricity through solar photovoltaic panels. However, the availability of solar energy varies with the weather and time of day. The battery pack acts as an energy store, storing excess electricity generated during the day for use at night or when light is low. This ensures that the system provides a continuous supply of electricity even at night or when solar energy production is insufficient.


Hybrid Systems

What is an hybrid system?

A hybrid solar system integrates the best aspects of both on-grid and off-grid systems, offering a versatile and flexible energy solution. This system allows seamless switching and simultaneous utilization of solar power and grid power based on electricity demand and prevailing conditions.Put simply,despite the fact they are connected to the utility grid, they have extra battery storage as a backup

Advantages of hybrid systems

  • Energy Independence and Reliability:Hybrid systems offer users the ability to generate and store their electricity, ensuring a reliable and uninterrupted power supply. By combining solar power generation with battery storage, these systems provide energy independence, reducing dependence on the grid and increasing resilience during power outages or unfavorable grid conditions. This means that even during challenging situations, such as severe weather events or grid disruptions, users can continue to access electricity from their hybrid system, ensuring a consistent and reliable energy source.
  • Total energy control:With a hybrid system, homeowners can optimize electricity consumption by utilizing off-peak hours and storing excess power in batteries for peak-rate periods or grid supply.



Whether you choose the stability of a grid-connected system, the independence of an off-grid system, or the flexibility of a hybrid system, the right choice needs to be made based on individual needs and specific scenarios.